10/07/2013

Pig Farm Business

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Pigs can be raised in controlled or free environment, as a small- or large-scale business. But in whatever size, a prospective farmer would need inputs as to how to raise pigs efficiently and in a more productive manner. Read from this guide and learn the basics on choosing piglets, proper nutrition, and ideal housing.


Raising pigs can be pursued as a small-scale operation as source of family meat and supplement income or it can be made into a large-scale operation.
Pigs may be raised in highly controlled environments (hog lots) indoor, in open spaces or barns as breeding sows or grown and sold for slaughter to butcher shops. Here are the aspects of pig raising that a
grower
must carefully consider:






 

Choosing Piglets to Raise

Pig feeders can be obtained from stock breeders, and producers, in auctions and classified ads. Pigs are of different breeds some of them are well suited for specific environments, indoor or outdoor. Crossbred pigs tend to grow faster, consume feed more efficiently and are vigorous. When buying a feeder, choose the large and healthy looking ones, at least 25 lbs. If you are choosing a male, which is observed to grow slightly faster than females, get one that is already castrated. Male or female, they are preferably immunized. Ask the breeder for health information and stock of the breeder.

 

Proper Nutrition for Pigs

Pigs feed on both grains and meat. They can also be fed with cooked table scraps and vegetables. Corn is their most common food, but they could benefit from having a diet with protein from soybeans or cooked meat. Further, they grow faster with vitamins and other supplements. Piglets have higher protein requirements than mature ones. Feeds can be bought packaged and in bulk. Pigs must also have adequate supply of drinking water daily, about two to four gallons. Provide water either through a tub or automatic nipple water.

 

Ideal Housing for Pigs

Pigs need housing to keep them warm during cold temperatures and to shelter them from excessive heat. Pigs are sensitive to heat and could die from heat stress. When housed indoors, temperature conditions must be well regulated. Controlled temperature conditions can help maximize growth. Cooling mechanisms for pigs can come in the form of drip water system or a wallow (for a hog pen).
Pigs can be housed indoors in individual stalls, pens (in groups or batch) or in barns. Even if the pigs are raised outdoors they would need a shelter during cold and hot weathers. The housing should have a space for feeding and bedding.

Housing of Pigs
  • The pig pens are divided into paddocks. 
  • The wall is built of blocks, the roof is of iron sheets or asbestos while the floor is made of concrete 
  • Each paddock should be constructed in a slanting or sloppy form with the inner end having water deep for cooling the temperature of pigs. 
  • The gates should be made of iron bars 
  • The house must be well ventilated and occasional shades should be provided in the afternoon under heavy sunshine. 
  • In most cases, the male should be kept separate from the female 
  • The house should have farrowing crates, rail guards, beddings, feeding and water troughs.

 

Pig Farm Sanitation/Hygiene

Sanitation is important to keep the pigs disease-free. A mechanism for easy cleaning and removal of waste is necessary for any type of pig housing. Some use slotted pen floors to make waste collection easy. Hosing a barn and removal of manure daily are recommended. So is keeping the floor dry to reduce odour.
After five to seven months, pigs are likely to reach ideal market weight of more than 200 lbs. They could be sold at livestock auctions or slaughtered for meat.

Good Hygiene Practices in Pig Farming
  • Regular dipping of the pigs to prevent ectoparasites 
  • Pigs should be dewormed regularly 
  • The wallow (deep where pigs cool down their temperature) should be cleaned regular. 
  • The bedding, feeding and watering troughs should be cleaned.
  • Visitors should use the foot deep in order not to spread diseases to the pigs. 
  •  The pigs should be vaccinated against certain diseases.
  • Spray the pig pen with insecticides and other disinfectants 
  • Wash the pen clean regularly. 
  • Remove cobweb and other dirty things from the pen.
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Breeds of Pigs

Large white, West African dwarf, Landrance, Berkshire, Duroc Jersey, Essex saddle back, Large black, Farmworth, Hamsphire, Wessex saddle back, Poland China, Welsh, Chester white.

Some Characteristics of Pigs
  1. They have a high deposit of fats hence their association with ponds or water because of fat catabolism.
  2. They are prolific, producing about 8-10 piglets at a time 
  3. They can farrow twice in a year. 
  4. The gestation period is very short, it is 114 days (3 months, 3 weeks and 3 days). 
  5. They have high feed convertibility, a piglet attains market weight at about 6-9 months. 
  6. They can reproduce at any time of the year.

 

FAQ On Pig Farming Business

Q. Different breeds of pig for meat?
A. Berkshire, Duroc, Hampshire, Landrace and Pietrain are few of the breeds available in market for farming.
Q. When to sell a pig, what is the best weight?
A. 175 to 260 pounds is the best weight of a pig to sell in the market.
Q. Best breed of pig for meat purpose?
A. Duroc is the best pig breed for meat.
Q. Feed requirements?
A. You can feed pig with vegetables, high protein grain diet and ground corn. You can feed the pigs once or twice a day for maximum weight gain. Remember water is most important for pig as one third of the pig body is made up of water.
Q. Which is the best breed pig for producing more piglets?
A. More likely Duroc is the best breed pig which produces more piglets..




1 comment :

  1. In Pig farm business, proper nutrition for pigs is important. Overfeeding or feeding wrong food results in health problems.The nutritional value of the food should be checked. Swine feeds are available as bulk or bagged custom mixes.

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