Feed Formulation For Poultry


Rations are mostly formulated for poultry. Before its formulation, the following should be borne in mind, 

  • The purpose of keeping the animal e.g egg laying or for table.
  • The age of the animal.
  • The cost of ration ingredients.

The major ingredient s in an ideal ration be it chick marsh, growers marsh or layers marsh are as follows:

Yellow maize: provides vitamin A and carbohydrate.
White maize: provides carbohydrate.
Rice bran: provides carbohydrate and acts as midlings.
Wheat offals: provide carbohydrate and act as midlings.
Guinea corn: provides carbohydrate
Palm kernel cake: provides lipids, vitamin, proteins
Coconut cake: provides lipids, vitamins, proteins.
Bean meal:  provides proteins, carbohydrate, lipids.
Groundnut cake: provides protein, lipids, vitamins.
Pigeon pea: provides protein, lipids, vitamins.
Bone meal: Provides minerals like calcium and phosphorus.
Oyster shell and grot: Minerals like calcium and phosphorus.
Blood meal: Provides protein, minerals like iron and copper.
Cotton seed meal: Provides protein, carbohydrate, vitamins and lipids.
Linseed meal: Provides protein, carbohydrate, vitamins and lipids.
Fish meal: Provides proteins, lipids and vitamins.
Common salt or salt lick: Provides mineral salts like sodium, iodine, chlorine and so many others.


A ration is the particular quantity of food an animal is given per day.

Types of Rations

Balanced Ration: This is a ration which consists of the essential food substance in the right proportion e.g
carbohydrate, lipids, protein, vitamins, mineral salts and water. They must be present before the ration can be balanced.
Maintenance Ration: This is the type of ration given to the animal in order for it to keep a particular shape, weight and size. There will be no increase or decrease in size and function of the animal.
Production Ration: This is the ration given above the maintenance ration so that the animal can increase in weight, size and improve in function. There are two notable production rations: they are flushing and steaming up.

Flushing is given to animal in order to increase fertility while steaming up helps to prepare pregnant female animal for parturition.



This is when a poultry bird is given substandard food/feed and it therefore begins to show some signs and symptoms of nutritional dysfunction and certain diseases. It can be corrected by giving the animal balanced diet.

Preparation of Some Ingredients

Blood Meal

  • Collect fresh blood from the abattoir. Make sure that the blood is hygienically collected
  • Allow the blood to clot or coagulate in the open. Keep in a big basin or tank in an open place.
  • Heat the blood to reduce the moisture content and kill the pathogens.
  • Dry the blood.
  • Cut into small pieces or sizes.
  • Crush or grind the blood into a meal.

Deficiency :
Hunger, irregular body temperature and general weakness or the bird will not have enough strength.

Fish Meal: This can be processed either by using the dry or the wet method.
     Dry Method: 

  • Collect fresh fish and other fish products.
  • Sun –dry or smoke to reduce the moisture content.
  • Grind or crush the dry fish into powder.

    Wet Method: 

  • Collect the fish and other fish products.
  • Boil moderately
  • Crush the fish.
  • Dry the crushed fish.

    Cotton Seed Meal 

  • Collect the cotton seeds.
  • Roast the seeds.
  • Grind or crush the seeds
  • Extract oil from the crushed seeds.
  • Dry the residue/cake.

Bone Meal: This can also be processed either through the dry or wet method.

Dry Method

  • Collect bones from the abattoir.
  • Dry the bones in the sun
  • Burn the bones.
  • Crush or grind the burnt bones to the desired texture.

    Wet Method/Rendering 

  • Collect bones from the abattoir .
  • Boil the bones.
  • Crush the bones.
  • Dry the crushed bones.

Oyster Shell Meal

  • Collect the oysters and other shells e.g snail shell.
  • Wash them.
  • Dry the oysters in the sun
  • Burn the shells.
  • Crush or grind them to required texture.

Groundnut Cake Meal

  • Collect the groundnut seeds.
  • Remove the outermost shell.
  • Dry them in the sun.
  • Roast them.
  • Grind to the required texture.

Palm kernel Meal

  • Collect palm kernels.
  • Ferment the seeds.
  • Remove the fleshy part.
  • Dry the seeds.
  • Grind or crush them to the required texture.


  1. An informative article about feed formulation for poultry. Different types of poultry feeds are available as bulk or bagged feeds.


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