28/05/2013

How to Create A Product Packaging

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Packaging according to kotler (1997) includes the activities of designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product. Since the product cannot be sold naked (without any container) the entire activities of providing a wrapper or container for a product is termed packaging. It also incudes material of which the package is made, the unique colours, graphics and symbols used to differentiate a brand of product from other brands.


Packaging Can Be in Three Layers:

Primary Package:  which is the next material to the product. It has the role immediate protection of the product. Examples are the tin that contain Bournvita or Milo and the bottle that contains Coca-Cola or Pepsi.

 Secondary Package: is the next material to the primary package i.e. when primary packages are packed then we refer to the secondary package. Examples are the carton that houses the tins of Bournvita or Milo, and crate that house Coca-Cola or Pepsi.

Shipping Package: contains the secondary package. Shipping package may be made from corrugated sheets or box to make shipping convenient.
The importance of packaging to the modern marketer lies in in its extensive use. The importance of packaging in today’s marketing decision making has encouraged some marketers to treat packaging as another element of the marketing mix. Hence they refer to the 5 P’s with packaging being the 5th P.A package therefore can form a vital part of the product and so can affect the consumer’s purchase decision.
  

REASONS FOR PACKAGING

There are many reasons for the use of packaging.

Protection: packaging is used to protect the product from danger that may come up between the producer and the consumer. Products must be protected against damage from elements of handling, spilling, evaporation, and spoilage. Examples include photographic film, soft drinks etc which are well, so protected against these elements.

Differentiation: some products such as nails, because of their nature cannot be differentiated except by packaging.

Identification: packaging enables consumers to identify different brands of a product at the point of purchase.

Ease of Handling: packaging enables both the marketer and the buyer to handle, open and close the product, with ease. Products such as milk and sugar cannot be handled without packaging. Some packages such as gallons are provided with handles for convenience.

Convenience Use: Apart from handling some packages make usage convenient and easy for consumers. Products such as yoghurt have mouth openings through which consumers can suck them.

Improvement of Sales: Some firms use packaging to improve the sales ability of their products. Their markets are often segmented with different sizes of packages used to appeal to different users.

Information: Most packages provide information about the product in terms of usage maintenance, repairs, and components warnings etc.

QUALITIES OF GOOD PACKAGE

The container or wrapper that is designed to contain the product is called a “Package”. A package must, therefore, possess specific characteristics in order to justify its use.
  1. A good package must attract the attention of consumers. 
  2. A good package must adequately describe the product’s features. 
  3. A good package must create consumer confidence. 
  4. Above all, a good package must create a favourable overall impression in the consumer.
Packaging Considerations
As package decisions are made, marketers must take into consideration several factors, which include:
Cost: there exist a variety of packages for use by the marketer; he must therefore choose the one that can serve the purpose for which it is intend at a reasonable cost. The cost of the package should not be too expensive compared with the product.

Protection: Marketers must consider the need for the product to be protected from pilferage. In the absolute sense, no package is tamper proof, but marketers must endeavor to use to use packages that are different to tamper with. This is possible when tampering with a product can be evident to the resellers and consumers.

Legal Factor: There are regulations by various bodies concerning packages which manufacturers must abide with. Such regulations demand that packages should describe the content of the product, while others warn consumers about possible danger in using the product. This explains why instructions such as; “This side up”, “Handle with care”, etc. are written boldly on packages. Such regulation bodies include the National Food and Drug Administration and Control (NAFDAC), the Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON).

Size: The size of the package should be in consonance with the size of the product. The package should not be too big neither should it be too small for the product. Generally, consumers do not like oversize, bulky and weighty packages.

Environmental Consideration: This requires that marketers should develop packages that are environmentally responsible. Environmental preservation issues permeate the global world today, making society to desire to preserve the environment against consumers desire for convenience. Therefore when designing a product package, its disposition must be taken into consideration such that it does not have litter the environment or make it dirty in any form.

Company Factor: This requires a firm to adopt family packaging for its related products. Family packaging enables a firm to promote an overall company image; therefore all its packages should be similar or possess one major design characteristic.

Promotion Factor: Packaging decisions must take into consideration the promotional role it is expected to play. The choice of colour, shape, design and texture goes along way in creating an impression about the product. For example, the red colour is usually linked with fire, blood, danger and anger while a vertical line makes a product look longer. The kind of effect that a firm wants to evoke in the consumers affects his choice of packaging.

Competitor’s Factor: In designing his product package a marketer unique and should not look like any competitor’s in order to avoid a situation of infringement on patent rights and secondly to clearly identify and differentiate his product from another product.

Market Research Findings: Market research findings often serve as a factor to be considered in package design. For instance, market research may elicit customers’ preferences in terms of colour, size, shape and other attributes of packaging. Since the consumers must have what they want, the consideration of research findings is important in package decision.

Product Factor: The nature of the product will affect the choice of packaging. For example milk must attract package that will eliminate spillage, bread cannot be packaged in green materials because customers associate green with mould.

 

PACKAGING STRATEGIES

Firm, therefore, may achieve competitive advantage as a result of package. As a result, packaging must be evaluated and re-evaluated periodically. The strategic issues in packaging decisions are discussed below.

Altering the Package
Changing of the package of an old product to a new package is a strategy employed when the former package is no longer in vogue or when the new package is available. At the same time, an improvement in the product requires a new package to reflect the new status of the new status of the product.

Secondary Use Packaging
A secondary use package is one that can be re-used for purposes other than its initial use. For example, the Bournvita tin can be used to store granulated sugar for domestic use. Likewise the beautiful cup cover of the Dubonnet tonic wine could be used as drinking cups. To the consumer, the secondary use of a package adds value to the product and, therefore, should stimulate sales.

Multiple Packaging
This involves putting more than one unit of the product in the pack. Hence we have twin packs (containing two), tri packs (containing three), six packs etc. multiple packaging is employed in order to increase demand as the amount of the product available at the point of consumption is increased.

Family Packaging
This exists when you use similar packaging for all or some of your related products. It may also be in form of having packages that possess one major design characteristic.

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